Details of the basic approach to mapping the 2020 annual targets for trade data are available in Bown (2020). Other hypotheses relate to the establishment of estimates for 15 different product categories, as the agreement provides only aggregate targets for the four sectors of manufacturing, agriculture, energy and services. The aim is to allocate product-level targets on the basis of the share of this product in all U.S. exports to China in 2017 of products covered by purchase obligations. See also the table below. Another reason to expect persistent trade tensions is that China may not be able to fully implement all of its WTO obligations within the agreed timeframe. What is positive is that even before the conclusion of its WTO negotiations, China accepted some of the commitments it made in bilateral negotiations with the United States in 1999 and with the European Union in 2000. For example, the Government has already approved an agreement authorizing AT-T to acquire a 25% interest in a joint venture to provide broadband telecommunications services in Pudong, Shanghai, which it had to accept after joining the WTO. China has also introduced tariff reductions for items under its obligation to participate in the WTO Information Technology Agreement. Some of the tariff reductions in early 2000 were not necessary until 2004 or 2005. China has also taken early steps to meet some of its obligations to liberalize foreign participation in audiovisual services, construction, retail, legal services and distribution services. In order to create a level playing field for domestic and foreign companies operating in China, financial, financial and regulatory authorities have begun to adapt many rules and systems, as stipulated in WTO rules. In an essay on foreign policy, U.S.
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton describes an American « pivot » to Asia. Clinton`s call to « increase investment – diplomatic, economic, strategic and otherwise – in the Asia-Pacific region is seen as a step against China`s growing influence. This month, at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit, U.S. President Barack Obama announces that the United States and eight other nations have reached an agreement on the Trans-Pacific Partnership – a multinational free trade agreement. Obama later announced plans to deploy 2,500 marines to Australia, prompting criticism from Beijing. In supporting tariffs as president, he said China costs the U.S. economy hundreds of billions of dollars a year because of unfair trade practices. After imposing tariffs, he denied engaging in a trade war and said that « the trade war was lost many years ago by the stupid or incompetent people who represented the United States. » He said the U.S. has a trade deficit of $500 billion a year, with intellectual property theft (IP) costing an additional $300 billion. « We can`t let this go on like this, » he said.   Former White House adviser Jim Schultz stated that « thanks to several presidential administrations – Clinton, Bush and Obama – the United States has looked naively in the other direction, while China has misled its path to an unfair advantage in the international trade market. »  As of September 2020, China had purchased only 53 per cent of what was expected at this time of year (Chart 1, Panel a).3 Imports of all covered products were only $65.9 billion compared to a target of $124.9 billion.
Up to three-quarters of 2020, China had bought only more than a third of what it had promised in the Trump deal it would buy this year. (The full-year purchase target is $173.1 billion.) Chinese imports from the United States failed to catch up with their pre-trade level and were 16 years lower